Level 3 verbs – Unit 10

appear:  to come into sight, to seem
A motorcycle appeared in his rearview mirror.
She appears to be a little nervous.

claim:  to say as a fact
He claims to be your father’s son from another marriage.
She claims to be telling the truth, but I don’t believe her.

conflict:  to be in disagreement or opposition
His story conflicts with her story, so who’s telling the truth?
Her part-time job does not conflict with her university studies.

debate:  to argue in favor of one thing or of another thing
They debated what kind of government was the best.
The students debated various solutions to the problem of homelessness.

devise:  to create, invent
We devised a plan to trap the mice.
He devised a simple system to purify water.

excel:  to do better than most others
My son excels in math and science.
She got a raise because she excels at work.

flash:  to show quickly
The police officer flashed his badge before entering the room.
She flashed him a big smile as she left the room.

hinder:  to stop (someone) from doing (something)
He went to the library because the noise at home was hindering his studying.
That big tree across the street hinders our view of the ocean.

improvise:  to do without any preparation
She wasn’t prepared, so she had to improvise a speech at her sister’s graduation.
The actor forgot his lines but improvised well enough to continue.

legalize:  to make legal
Canada legalized marijuana for use as a medicine.
There are no plans to legalize gambling in this state.

mourn:  to feel sad (usually when someone dies)
The children mourned the loss of their of their father in the war.
For months afterwards, he mourned the death of his dog.

provoke:  to make (something) happen (often anger)
The crowd provoked the police into taking strong action.
If you talk about politics, it will provoke my brother into an argument.

recruit:  to get (someone) to join (a group)
We need to recruit one more person to join our study group.
He’s trying to recruit me into his gang.

signify:  to represent, mean
The blinking lights in the theater signified that intermission was over.
Those dark clouds signify the coming of a storm.

strive:  to try hard, make a great effort
The airline strives to make sure every customer has a good experience.
He is always striving to better himself.

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Money expressions and idioms


bet one’s bottom dollar:  make a bet one can’t lose
You can bet your bottom dollar that she’ll be late.

break even:  neither win nor lose money
If we sell that gold coin now, we can break even.

bring home the bacon:  earn money to support the family
She’s the one who brings home the bacon in that family.

cash in:  to change into cash by exchanging or selling something
He decided to cash in and sold his company for five million dollars.

chip in:  contribute with others to buy something
All the employees chipped in on a retirement gift for George.

clean up:  win or make a lot of money
He took his tow truck out on the road during that last snow storm and just cleaned up.

foot the bill:  pay
Who’s going to foot the bill if the truck breaks down?

get caught short:  be in a situation where one doesn’t have enough money
If we don’t want to get caught short, we should start saving now.

grease one’s palm:  give someone money for special treatment
If we want to get into the club, we have to grease the doorman’s palm.

have sticky fingers:  steal money
I told you not to hire him because he had sticky fingers.

hit the jackpot:  win a great deal of money
The first time they bought a lottery ticket, they hit the jackpot.

keep the books (in a company):  record the money earned and spent (by the company)
His daughter keeps the books for the company.

lay out more money:  spend more money
The contractor said we have to lay out more money to fix the cracks in the basement.

live high off the hog:  own the best that money can buy
She sold her company last year, and now they’re living high off the hog.

live on a shoestring:  living on a tight budget with no extra money to spend
Since she left her parent’s house, she’s been living on a shoestring.

lose one’s shirt:  lose all one’s money
He invested all his money in a real estate scheme and lost his shirt.

make a bundle:  make a lot of money
If we sell this idea to an investor, I’m sure we can make a bundle.

make a fast buck:  make money quickly
Everybody wants to make a fast buck, but it’s extremely hard to do.

make a killing:  make a very good investment that pays well
He bought Microsoft stock in 1984 and made a killing.

make ends meet:  have just enough money for expenses
He had to get a second job to make ends meet.

make money hand over fist:  earn large amounts of money
They created an app that finds the cheapest gas, and now they’re making money hand over fist.

pay an arm and a leg (for something):  spend more than one can afford
I hear she paid an arm and a leg for her new teeth.

pay through the nose:  pay too much
If you pay the minimum on your credit card each month, you’ll pay through the nose.

pick up the tab:  pay the bill for everyone
He invited everyone to come celebrate with him, and he picked up the tab for everything.

rake in the cash:  make a lot of money
As soon as they opened the doors of their restaurant, they started to rake in the cash.

scrape together:  manage to get
The young couple were able to scrape together a down payment on a condo.

set one back:  cost
How much did that new car set you back?

shell out:  spend
You have to shell out some money and replace the glasses you broke.

splurge:  spend too much money
After he got a raise at work, he started to splurge.

strike it rich:  make a lot of money quickly
Lots of people hope to strike it rich by creating the next popular app.

take a beating:  lose a lot of money
He took a beating in the stock market last year.

tighten one’s belt:  stop spending money except for necessities
Since your parents stopped supporting you, you need to tighten your belt.

won’t break the bank:  is something one can afford to buy
I can buy that laptop.  It won’t break the bank.


a cheapskate:  a person who doesn’t like to spend money at all
That man never leaves a tip when he eats here.  He’s a cheapskate.

a deadbeat:  a person who doesn’t pay what they owe
His father is a deadbeat that he hasn’t seen in years.

a handout:  free gift from family or friends
Every Christmas my sister comes home looking for a handout.

a penny pincher:  a person who is very careful with their spending
Her mother has always been a penny pincher.

a windfall:  a lot of money
They received a windfall when her father died.

chicken feed:  very little money
He returns cans and bottles for chicken feed.

cold hard cash:  real money in bills and coins
I won’t accept a cheque.  I want cold hard cash.

money to burn:  money one doesn’t need
You guys can go to Las Vegas if you want, but I don’t have any money to burn.

nest egg:  savings of money for the future
They decided never to spend their nest egg.

one’s two cents worth:  one’s opinion
After everyone had said their two cents worth, the president made her decision.

Adjectives / prepositional phrases:

at all cost:  without thinking of the price
They need to fix that roof at all cost.

back on one’s feet:  in good financial health
I want to help him get back on his feet.

down and out:  feeling sad because of having no money
He’s been down and out since he lost his job.

flat broke:  without any money at all
To tell you the truth, I’m flat broke.

from hand to mouth:  having just enough money for the basic things
The family down the street is living from hand to mouth.

hard up for cash:  needing money
My brother lost his job last month, and he’s hard up for cash.

in the hole:  owing money
I’m in the hole for about ten thousand dollars.

in the red:  losing more money than making
The company has been in the red for the last ten months.

loaded:  rich
The man she met is tall, handsome and loaded.

on the house:  free
To celebrate our one-year anniversary, for the next ten minutes drinks are on the house.;

strapped for cash:  without any money
Can you lend me a hundred dollars?  I’m a little strapped for cash at the moment.


I feel like a million dollars:  I feel happy
I think I’ve finally met the right person, and I feel like a million dollars.

money is no object:  it doesn’t matter how expensive it is, one can buy it
I want the very best.  Money is no object.

money was burning a hole in one’s pocket:  one wanted to spend money quickly
The money from my grandparents was burning a hole in my pocket, so I spent it.

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Common flowers

Here is a list of the most common flowers that you will find at a florist.


Its botanical name is hippeastrum.  It’s a bulbous plant native to South America from Argentina to Mexico and the Caribbean.  These flowers can bloom indoors in the winter months.

botanical:  scientific    bulbous:  from a bulb
native to:  originally growing in    bloom:  produce a flower


They are also known as Michaelmas daisies.  They are native to North American and Eurasia.  They are popular as garden plants.  The name comes from the Greek word “star” because of the shape of the flower.



Bird of paradise:

It’s botanical name is strelitzia.  They are native to southern Africa.  They bloom all year long.





These flowers are native to the tropical Americas.  They can store water in their leaves.

tropical:  warm and wet




Its botanical name is Ranunculus.  They bloom in the spring and can continue all summer long.





Its botanical name is dianthus caryophyllus.  This flower is native to the Mediterranean region.  It has a nice fragrance.

region:  area
fragrance:  smell



They are also called mums.  These flowers are native to Asia and northeastern Europe.  They are traditionally yellow but can also be white, purple and red.

traditionally:  mostly in its history



Its botanical name is centaurea cyanus.  It is native to Europe.  It blooms all summer long.




These flowers grow all over the world and are among the first flowers in the spring.  They are mostly dark purple, light purple, yellow or white.




Its botanical name is narcissus.  It is one of the earliest spring flowers.  The flowers are a trumpet shape and come in white, yellow, orange or pink.

trumpet:  narrow on one side and opening wide on the other



This flower is native to Mexico.  It comes in most colors but not blue.




Its botanical name is asteraceae.  There are over 32,000 species of this flower, including the aster and sunflower.

species:  different kinds



Its botanical name is digitalis.  This flower is native to southwestern Europe, western and central Asia and northwestern Africa.  It comes in purple, pink, white and yellow.

it comes in:  its colors are



This flower is native to Asia, Mediterranean Europe, South Africa and tropical Africa.  They come in red, orange, pink, light purple, cream and white.





These flowers are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world.  They come in white, pink, red, orange, peach, yellow and purple.

temperate:  not too hot, not too cold
subtropical:  next to tropical areas



Its botanical name is hyacinthus.  This is a bulbous plant native to the eastern Mediterranean region.  It is very fragrant and comes in red, blue, white, orange, pink, violet and yellow.




It’s also called touch-me-not.  This flower is found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics.

throughout:  everywhere in
tropics:  tropical regions



Its name comes from the Greek word for rainbow because of the many colors of this flower. It’s found in temperate Northern Hemisphere areas.  They are mostly purple and blue but can also be yellow, pink, orange and white.

Northern Hemisphere:  the top half of the earth


Its botanical name is lavandula.  It is native to Europe, the Mediterranean region, southwest Asia and India.




Its botanical name is lilium.  It is a bulbous plant native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.  Lilies are among the most popular flowers in the U.S.  Lilies are lovely smelling and come in many unique colors.

lovely smelling:  with a nice smell    unique:  not common


Its botanical name is nelumbo nucifera.  This water plant is native to tropical Asia and Queensland, Australia.  A single lotus can live for over 1000 years.





Its botanical name is tagetes.  It is native to North and South America.  They come in golden, orange, yellow and white colors.



Morning glory:

Its botanical name is convolvulaceae.  The flower opens up in the early morning and closes at night.  The flowers grow along a vine.

vine:  very long stem




Its botanical name is orchidaceae.  There are about 28,000 species of this flower.





Its botanical name is viola.  It is native to Europe and western Asia.





Petunias are native to South America.  Its showy trumpet-shaped flowers make it popular for summer flower beds and window boxes.  They come in blue, purple, pink, red and white.




Its botanical name is paeonia.  It is native to Asia, Europe and western North America.  These flowers bloom in late spring and early summer.  They are often fragrant and come in a range of colors from purple red to white or yellow.



Its botanical name is papaveraceae.  They grow in temperate regions and bloom from spring into early summer.





Its botanical name is primulaceae.  These flowers bloom in early spring and last all summer.  They come in white, cream, yellow, orange, red, pink purple and blue.



This flower is native to Asia, Europe, North America and northwestern Africa.  There are over a hundred species of this flower.  The colors range from white through yellows and reds.




Its botanical name is antirrhinum.  They are also called dragon flowers.  These flowers are native to rocky areas of Europe, the United States and North Africa.




Its botanical name is galanthus.  It is a bulbous plant that blooms in late winter.  This flower is native to Europe and the Middle East.





Its botanical name is helianthus.  This flower is native to North America.  The young plant turns to face the sun, but after the flower blooms, it stops and faces east.




Sweet William:

Its botanical name is dianthus barbatus.  It is native to southern Europe and parts of Asia.  They come in white, pink, red and purple colors or combinations of these.

combinations:  more than one color together



This flower is native to Europe, Asia and north Africa.  This bulbous plant blooms in early spring.  It comes in many colors except pure blue.




Its botanical name is violaceae.  These flowers are found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere.  They come in various shades of blue, yellow, white and cream.  The flowers last through the spring and summer.

various:  lots of different
shades:  different colors


This flower is native to the southwestern United States to South America.  They bloom in the summertime.  They come in white, yellowish green, yellow, orange, red and purple.

Level 3 verbs – Unit 09

adapt: to make changes when things around you change
He found it hard to adapt to his new job, so he quit after two weeks.
Immigrants have to adapt to a new language and culture.

blend:  to mix together
To make this mocha, she blends dark-roasted coffee with Swiss chocolate.
Oil and water don’t blend well because the oil floats on top of the water.

commend:  to praise, approve, admire
I want to commend you on your win in last Sunday’s poker game.
Although he wasn’t successful, everyone commended him for his effort.

depict:  to describe, represent in words or pictures
The novel depicts a young family’s survival in the old west.
On the wall was a mural depicting homeless people.

endure:  to continue to exist, to last
How much pain can one person endure?
The words in the Constitution will endure forever.

grin:  to make a big smile showing teeth
It’s not a good idea to grin at a bear.
I knew he was teasing because he was grinning.

inspire:  to motivate, influence in a positive way
Terry Fox inspired many people to give to cancer research.
Her grandmother inspired her to become a doctor.

manipulate:  to unfairly influence (someone) to get what you want
She manipulated her parents into agreeing to send her to summer camp.
He knows how to manipulate his parents into giving him money.

pierce:  to make a hole or opening in (someone / something)
The child pierced the balloon with scissors.
The arrow pierced his heart, killing him instantly.

prosecute:  to take (someone) to court for a wrongdoing
Shoplifters will be prosecuted.
His company prosecuted him for stealing money.

reinforce:  to make stronger by adding something
The building was reinforced against earthquakes five years ago.
The general decided to reinforce the third brigade on the front lines.

stimulate:  to encourage someone to do something
The government lowered interest rates to stimulate the economy.
He says that alcohol stimulates his creativity.

unify:  to make or become a single unit, unite
The two motorcycle clubs voted to unify.
Many people believe this leader will unify their political party.

venture:  to do something risky
He ventured into the stock market in his early twenties.
Although he had a bicycle, he never ventured outside his neighborhood.

wiggle:  to move quickly from side to side
The shoes were so tight she couldn’t wiggle her toes.
Her father wiggled her tooth and told her she would lose it in a couple of days.

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Idioms of love

Happy love expressions:

Soul mate:  a person who is a perfect match for someone
• I think I’ve finally found my soul mate.

To be crazy about (someone):  to be so in love with someone that you can’t stop thinking of them
• John is crazy about Alicia.

To be head over heals for (someone):   (same definition as above)
ALSO: To be head over heals in love with (someone)
• John is head over heals for Alicia.
• John is head over heals in love with Alicia.

To get serious:  to take a relationship to a more committed level of love
• Sue told me she‘s getting serious about Paul.

To have a crush on (someone):  to be secretly in love with someone (usually teenagers)
ALSO:  To have got a crush on (someone)
• She has a crush on her piano teacher.
• She‘s got a crush on her piano teacher.

To hit it off:  to meet someone and really like each other immediately
• I introduced my roommate to my sister, and they hit it off right away.

To make up with (someone):  to forgive (someone) after a breakup
• Joe made up with Judy over the weekend, so they’re back together again.
ALSO:  To make up:  To forgive each other after a breakup.
• Joe and Judy made up over the weekend, so they’re back together again.
ALSO:  To take someone back:  to let someone be your lover again.
• Joe apologized, so Judy took him back.

To pop the question:  to ask someone to marry you
• My brother popped the question last night to his girlfriend, and she said yes.

Unhappy love expressions:

To dump (someone):  to tell someone that you no longer want a relationship with them
• After three months she dumped him.

To break up (with someone):  To end a relationship (with a lover)
• David and Annette broke up last week, so they’re not coming to the party.

To break someone’s heart:  to cause someone who loves you to feel sad
• She broke his heart when she left him for another man.
ALSO:  To have a broken heart:  to feel sad about a lover leaving you
• After she left him, he had a broken heart.
ALSO:  To suffer from a broken heart
• We’d better leave him alone tonight.  He‘s suffering from a broken heart.
ALSO:  (Someone’s) heart was broken
• When he saw her with another man, his heart was broken.

To brush someone off:  to give an excuse not to see someone
• Every time I ask her for a date, she brushes me off.

To cheat (on someone):  to have a second lover
• He cheated on her, and that’s why they broke up.
ALSO:  To have an affair (with someone):
• She had an affair with her boss.
ALSO: A cheater:  a person who has another lover
• She knows he is a cheater, but she took him back anyway.

To split up:  To stop seeing each other
• Joanne and her new boyfriend split up because he couldn’t dance.

To stand someone up:   to not show up for a date with someone
• I’m home early because she stood me up.
ALSO:  To be stood up:  someone not showing up for a date with you
• I’m home early because I was stood up.

To turn someone down:  to refuse to go on a date with someone
• He tried to make a date with her, but she turned him down.

Neutral love expressions:

A blind date:  a date with someone you’ve never seen before
• I’d better go home and get ready for my blind date tonight.

A double date:  a date with your lover and another couple
• Let’s go on a double date with Bruce and Barb this Saturday night.

To fix someone up:  to get someone else a date with someone
• My cousin’s coming to visit, and I thought I’d fix her up with my best friend.

To ask someone out:  to invite someone on a date
• You know that cute girl in math class?  I think I’m going to ask her out.

To chat someone up:  to speak to someone so they start to like you
• I know you’re shy, but just go over there and chat her up and see what happens.

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Expressions with animals

In English we use a lot of expressions with animals because we think certain characteristics go with certain animals.  Here is a list of the most common of these expressions.


A copy cat (n.):  someone who does the same thing as someone else
That was my idea.  You’re just a copy cat.

A fraidy-cat (n.):  someone who is easily frightened
My little sister is a fraidy-cat.

Cat got your tongue?:  Don’t you have anything to say?
What’s the matter?  Cat got your tongue?

Cat nap (n.):  a short sleep
I had a cat nap this afternoon, so I should be okay for this evening.

Curiosity killed the cat:  being too nosy may get you into trouble
We all want to know why, but remember curiosity killed the cat.
(Yes, but satisfaction brought him back.)

Let the cat out of the bag:  tell a secret
My sister let the cat out of the bag and told my mother about the surprise party.

Raining cats and dogs:  raining heavily
It’s raining cats and dogs, so let’s stay inside today.


Dog days of summer (n.):  hot days when no one wants to work
These are the dog days of summer and I feel like doing nothing at all.

In the dog house (prep. phrase):  in a lot of trouble with another person
I forgot our anniversary, and now I’m in the dog house.

Let sleeping dogs lie:  not make trouble if one doesn’t have to
Don’t tell the boss about his problem.  Just let sleeping dogs lie.

Top dog (n.):  most important person in an organization
My brother is top dog in his sales department.

You can’t teach an old dog new tricks:  It’s hard to get people to change their habits
I tried to get my grandmother to use Skype, but you can’t teach an old dog new tricks.


A lame duck (n.):  a person who can’t function because he’s at the end of his term
Obama wasn’t able to do anything after the election because he was a lame duck president

A wild goose chase:  a hopeless attempt to get something
I went to several stores to try to find my favorite lipstick, but it was a wild goose chase.

As the crow flies (prep. phrase):  the shortest distance
As the crow flies, the nearest town is 50 kilometers away.

Birds of a feather flock together:  similar people hang out together
All the tekkies eat lunch together because, as we all know, birds of a feather flock together.

Chicken out (v.):  to be too afraid to do something
He was going to ask her to the school dance, but he chickened out.

Cold turkey (n.):  without the help of medication
My friend George quit cigarettes cold turkey.

Kill two birds with one stone (v):  get two things done at the same time
You can kill two birds with one stone by having both birthday parties at the same time and in the same place.

Swan song (n.):  a final act or performance before dying or retirement
She’s an almost 35-year-old ballerina, so this performance may be her swan song.

Watch something like a hawk:  to watch intensely and for a long time
You’d better watch him like a hawk, or he’ll make a mistake we can’t fix.


A dark horse (n.):  a person unknown to the general public
John Stewart is a dark horse in the next election, but he could win.

Change horses in midstream:  make new plans when one is in the middle of doing old plans
We already decided to get a motel outside of San Francisco, so let’s not change horses in midstream.

Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth:  don’t complain if a gift isn’t perfect
If I were you I would accept his help.  Don’t look a gift horse in the mouth.

Get off one’s high horse:  not think one is better than other people
I know she hurt you, but get off your high horse.  You’re not perfect either.

Horse around (v.):  play in a rough way
When we’re gone tonight I don’t want you and your brother to horse around.

Put the cart before the horse:  do things in the wrong order
Planning your wedding date before he’s asked you to marry him is putting the cart before the horse.

Straight from the horse’s mouth (prep. phrase):  directly from the original source
I didn’t make it up, I heard it straight from the horse’s mouth.

You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink:  you can give someone an opportunity but you can’t force them to take it
She missed another job interview that I set up for her.  That just shows you can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink.


Rat on someone (v.):  report someone’s bad behavior to someone in authority
He ratted on his friend, and the police came and arrested him.

Rat race (n.):  strong competition for power, money
I think he’s ready to leave the rat race and retire to northern California.

Smell a rat:  feel that someone or something is not truthful
I smell a rat.  I think someone on the committee is trying to make it difficult for the president.


In a pig’s eye:  I don’t believe you
In a pig’s eye!  There’s no way you won every game you played.

Pig out (v.):  eat a lot
I pigged out at the party, and now I feel a little sick.

A road hog (n.):  a driver who uses more than his share of the road
Go around that road hog, or we’re going to be late.


A lone wolf (n.):  a person who prefers to be alone
My brother is kind of a lone wolf.  He has come home only a couple times in the last ten years.

A wolf in sheep’s clothing (n.):  a bad person who pretends to be good
Don’t be fooled by Peter’s kindness.  He’s really a wolf in sheep’s clothing.

Cry wolf (v.):  give a false alarm
She cried wolf too many times, and no one came to save her this time.


A bull in a china shop (n.):  a very clumsy person
Don’t let your son run around the store.  He’s like a bull in a china shop.

A cash cow (n.):  a business that makes a lot of money
That gold mine in the Yukon is a cash cow.

A sacred cow (n.):  something highly regarded and not open to criticism
Government pensions used to be a sacred cow, but now the public is demanding change.

Take the bull by the horns (v.):  be responsible and do something
Rather than wait for something to happen, I think you should take the bull by the horns and do something.


A busy bee (n.):  someone who is busy all the time
She’s such a busy bee she doesn’t have time to go for coffee.

A fly in the ointment (n.):  a small problem that could effect the whole thing
I know we need to get permission first, but that’s only a fly in the ointment.

A fly on the wall (n.):  able to hear someone’s conversation
I would to be a fly on the wall and hear that conversation.

Ants in one’s pants (n.):  very restless or excited about something
Before an exam I always get ants in my pants.

Make a beeline for (v.):  go directly to
As soon as he got home, he made a beeline for the bathroom.


A fish out of water (n.):  very uncomfortable in a particular situation or environment
I feel like a fish out of water in my new job.

A kettle of fish (n.):  an awkward, difficult or bad situation
After the chairperson quit, it left the rest of us in a kettle of fish.

A red herring (n.):  something that misleads and takes attention away from the important issue
I think the missing money is just a red herring.  There’s a bigger problem here.

Something smells fishy:  It feels like something is wrong
I don’t know if I want to invest in his idea.  Something smells fishy.


A paper tiger (n.):  someone who appears to have power but who does not
Don’t pay much attention to my grandfather.  He’s a paper tiger.

An eager beaver (n.):  someone who is excited about doing something
You’re lucky as a teacher.  It seems like you have a classroom of eager beavers.

As stubborn as a mule:  very stubborn, unwilling to change one’s mind
I tried to convince her to come with us, but she’s as stubborn as a mule.

Black sheep of the family (n.):  a person who is unlike everyone else
My older brother has always been the black sheep of the family.

Elephant in the room (n.):  a topic that everyone’s thinking about but nobody is talking about
After she lost her baby, no one wanted to talk about the elephant in the room.

Get the lion’s share (v.):  get more than one’s fair share
Because he’s the oldest, my brother gets the lions share of attention from our parents.

Guinea pig (n.):  a person who is tested to see if something works
I don’t want to be your guinea pig, so no, I don’t want you to give me a haircut.

Monkey business (n.):  mischief, unethical behavior
We’ll be back home at 11:00, and I don’t want any monkey business while we’re gone.

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Vocabulary of the body

ankle (n):  the joint between the foot and the leg
anus (n):  the opening where food exits the body
appendix (n):  a narrow tube at the top of the large intestine that has no function
artery (n):  a tube that delivers blood to the body
bladder (n):  the sack that holds urine
blood (n):  the red liquid that feeds every cell of the body
bone (n):  the hard interior structure of the body
bowels (n):  the small and large intestines
     colon (n):  the bottom part of the large intestine
     intestine (n):  the tube that carries food waste from the body
     bowel movement (BM) (n):  the solid waste from the body
buttocks (n):  the muscles at the back of the body that you sit on
breast (n):  the source of milk
brain (n):  the grey matter in the head responsible for thinking
cartilage (n):  the whitish connective tissue between bones
cell (n):  the smallest unit of a body
chest (n):  the upper front of the torso
colon (n):  the upper part of the large intestine
digestion (n):  the body’s process of making use of food
digit (n): one of five extensions of the hand or foot.
elbow (n):  the joint between the upper and lower arms
eye (n):  the part of the head that sees
     cornea (n):  the clear part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil
     lens (n):  the part behind the iris that focuses the image
     retina (n):  the back of the eye that receives images
     iris (n):  the colored part of the eye
     pupil (n):  the opening at the center of the iris
     optic (adj):  of or related to the eye
finger (n):  one of five digits on the hand
fingernail (n):  the hard material at the end of the finger
gland (n):  an organ that produces a substance that the body needs
gums (n):  the tissue at the base of the teeth
heal (n):  the back part of the foot
heart (n):  the organ that pumps blood to the body
     aorta (n):  the large blood vessel where blood exits the heart
     cardiac (adj):  of or related to the heart
hip (n):  the bone on the lower side of the torso below the waist
hormone (n):  a production of a gland that helps the body function
intestine (n):  the tube that connects the stomach and the anus
joint (n):  the connection between bones that allows movement
kidney (n):  the organ that produces urine
     renal (adj):  of or related to the kidneys
knuckle (n):  one of three joints in the finger
liver (n):  the organ that cleans the blood
     hepatic (adj):  of or related to the liver
lungs (n):  the organs that take in air
     pulmonary (adj):  of or related to the lungs
     respiration (n):  the process of breathing
metabolism (n): the process in a cell that produces energy
     metabolic (adj):  of or related to metabolism
muscle (n):  the soft tissue that allows movement in the body
nerve (n):  a long tissue that relays information from the body to the brain.
nose (n):  the part of the face that breathes and smells
     nasal (adj):  of or related to the nose
     nostril (n):  one of two openings in the nose
     olfactory (adj):  of or related to the sense of smell
organ (n):  a structure of the body that performs a specialized function
pelvis (n):  the hip bone structure
penis (n):  the male sexual organ
rectum (n):  the bottom straight part of the large intestine
ribs (n):  the bones that enclose the chest
shoulder (n):  the joint between the torso and the arm
skeleton (n):  all of the bones of the body together
skin (n):  the organ on the outside of the body
skull (n):  the bone around the head
spinal column / backbone:  the bones of the back
spinal cord (n):  the nerve that runs down the backbone
stomach (n):  the organ that receives food
tendon (n):  the tissue that connects a muscle to a bone
throat (n):  the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach
toe (n):  one of five digits on the foot
toenail (n):  the hard end of a toe
tongue (n):  the muscle in the floor of the mouth
tonsils (n):  the tissue on each side of the throat that is often removed
tooth (n):  the hard tissue in the mouth that allows chewing
     incisor (n):  one of the four top or four bottom front teeth
     molar (n):  one of the flat teeth in the back of the mouth
torso (n):  the central part of the body apart from the arms and legs
urine (n):  liquid waste from the body
uterus / womb (n):  the place where babies grow
vagina (n): the female sexual organ
vein (n):  a tube that returns blood to the heart
waist (n):  the soft part of the body above the hips
wrist (n):  the joint between the hand and the arm

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Level 3 verbs – Unit 07

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access:  to be able to reach or connect to

I’m having trouble accessing my bank account.
Students can easily access their marks online.

bargain:  to make an agreement so both sides are satisfied
The union bargained a new three-year contract.
They bargained for half an hour before agreeing on a price for the car.

clarify:  to make clear and understandable
The candidate was asked to clarify his position on immigration.
The company posted regulations to clarify how men should treat women in the workplace.

correspond: to communicate regularly
They corresponded for years with emails before meeting face to face.
She corresponds regularly with other scientists around the world.

devote:  to give lots of time and attention (to something or someone)
He devoted his time every summer to taking care of his aging parents.
She has devoted her life to her children.

fidget:  to move around nervously or impatiently
She fidgets with her hair when she’s lying.
He fidgeted with his keys as he waited for his interview.

impress:  to cause admiration or approval
He impressed her with his ability to play the piano.
Her family was impressed with her fiance’s future plans.

linger:  to stay longer than usual
They lingered after the party so they could help clean up.
The students all lingered after the basketball game was over.

observe:  to watch for a while
The park is a good place to observe birds.
The student-teachers wanted to observe a class in action.

propose:  to suggest (something) to be considered
The committee proposed that future meetings should be recorded.
She proposed that the family go on vacation together.

refrain:  to not do (something)
Please refrain from smoking in the car when children are present.
He couldn’t refrain from laughing when he saw the look on her face.

shriek:  to make a loud, high sound
Many were shrieking in pain after the bus crash.
She shrieked when she saw the snake on the floor.

squander:  to use wastefully and have no more
It only took him two weeks to squander the money his parents gave him.
He squandered his time watching cartoons on TV.

undergo:  to go through an unpleasant experience
For a year he had to undergo radiation treatment for his bone cancer.
The baby underwent three surgeries in the first year of his life.

withdraw:  to move back or take back
Every Friday she withdraws $200 dollars from her bank account.
The police were ordered to withdraw from the building.

Pronunciation Exercise: Listen and repeat the vocabulary above on the audio file below.

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Level 3 verbs – Unit 04

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applaud:  to clap hands in appreciation
The audience applauded wildly at the end of the concert.
I applaud her courage in leaving her husband.

benefit:  to be good for
A national health program benefits everyone.
A house with more bedrooms would benefit us a lot.

concern:  to be of interest to, be worried
A shortage of water concerns all the farmers in the area.
I’m concerned about my father’s health.

deprive:  to stop from having
As a good mother she deprives her children of candy.
Because he studied all night, he was deprived of sleep.

ensure:  to make sure, guarantee
This new investment will ensure the success of the company.
Please ensure that the door is locked after you leave.

glance:  to look at very quickly
She glanced at the clock and saw it was midnight.
The child glanced over his shoulder to see if anyone was following him.

infuriate:  to make very angry
It infuriates me when my wife takes a long time to get ready to go.
When the president cancelled elections, it infuriated the citizens.

magnify: to make larger
He just needs reading glasses to magnify the words so he can see them.
You don’t want to magnify the problem, so just be quiet.

oppose: to try to stop by doing things against
There are many people who oppose war.
The church opposes the new “right to die” law.

recommend: to say someone should do (something)
My friends recommend that we go eat at the new Mexican restaurant downtown.
What treatment does the doctor recommend for this patient?

regret: to be sorry about
I hurt your feelings, and I regret that very much.
After he bought the motorcycle, he regretted his purchase.

seal: to close up tight to keep the air out
When he was finished, he sealed the letter in the envelope.
You need to seal that container better if you want the food to last.

sponsor:  to be responsible for, support with money
This show is sponsored by the Ford Motor Company.
Senator Cohen helped sponsor a bill to legalize marijuana.

terrify: to greatly scare
The boy terrified his sister with a snake he found in the garden.
When he thinks about losing his family, it terrifies him.

verify: to prove something is true
She verified that the painting was a real Van Gogh.
The bank verified his signature and gave him the money.

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Level 3 verbs – Unit 02

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alter:  to make different for some reason
Her mother altered her wedding gown so it would fit her better.
His excuse doesn’t alter the fact that he missed an important test.

bar:  to prevent, exclude, close
He was barred from the poker club for cheating.
The police barred the exits so the thief couldn’t escape.

comply:  to follow directions or requests
The police asked them to leave and they complied.
She failed to comply with the judge’s orders.

decline:  to say no, refuse
Although he was rich and handsome, she declined his invitation.
He declined the offer on his house because it was too low.

disturb:  to bother, interrupt
Please don’t disturb me when I’m working at the computer.
Your father is in the study and doesn’t want to be disturbed.

exaggerate:  to make it sound better or bigger than it really is
Richard always exaggerates his real estate sales.
He wouldn’t be the first fisher to exaggerate the size of his catch.

ignore:  to not notice or consider
It’s hard to ignore the crime rate in this city.
He asked them to ignore his weaknesses and hire him on his strengths.

limit:  to keep something small
We need to limit the number of people we invite to the party.
He limits the amount of money he spends on clothes.

overlook:  to not notice or consider, disregard
Although his second novel was a bestseller, people overlook his first.
The youngest child in the family, he was often overlooked.

predict:  to say what will happen in the future
I can’t predict what will happen if you don’t tell her the truth.
The meteorologist predicts snow for this coming weekend.

rehearse:  to practice for a public performance
She said she’ll be late today because she has to rehearse with the band.
All week he rehearsed for his speech.

sigh:  to let out your breath noisily
The class sighed from relief when the teacher postponed the exam.
She sighed when she found out she still had a lot more work to do.

stretch:  to make longer, extend
He stretched in bed before getting up.
She stretched a rope between two trees to hang her laundry.

thaw:  to become unfrozen, melt
It took an hour for the frozen fish to thaw.
When Spring came, the rivers and lakes started to thaw.

wager:  to bet, put money on a result
I’ll wager that you can’t make that basketball shot from this distance.
He never wagers on the outcome of an election.

Pronunciation Exercise: Listen and repeat the vocabulary above on the audio file below.

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